Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining is basically the procedure of removing materials using high speed precision machines, which use the widest range of cutting accessories. As such, selecting the right kind of machining solution is critical to the success of a production.
5 axis CNC machining refers to the ability of a machine to move a part or a tool in five separate axes at the same time. 5 axis CNC machining is a great approach for producing end products and parts, with greater accuracy, from materials such as metals and plastics. Given below is a detailed outline on all the important facts that you need to know about 5 axis CNC machining.
What is a 5 axis CNC machine?
5 axis CNC machining is the process that is all about using the CNC for moving different parts or cutting equipment across five separate axes at once. This makes it easy to produce highly intricate parts, which is also the reason why 5 axis CNC machining is highly common in the aerospace operations. One thing that has a major contribution to an increasing use of 5 axis CNC machining is the demand for increasing adeptness and reducing the production time needed from the beginning to the completion of an actual procedure.
The ability of avoiding to crash with the parts that hold the equipment through revolving the cutting tool or table, which leaves enough room for quickly approaching to part geometry, is also an important contributing factor. Finally, increased longevity or a long equipment life is ensured due to revolving the cutting equipment or table to get the right incisive position and steady chip load.
Everything to know about 5 axis cnc machining
Now that you have a brief idea of 5 axis CNC machining, let’s take a look at a few more significant aspects of it that you need to know.
The ‘five’ for 5 axis CNC machining
5 axis machining is basically a mode of the CNC machining. The normally used machining centers have three axis, namely, the X, Y, and Z axis of the machining center. The 5 axis CNC machining center adds two of the rotating shafts to the usually found three linear axes named X, Y, and Z. For meeting the technical requirements of different products, two out of the three axes named A, B, and C come with separate motion modes.
The main forms of 5 axis CNC machining
The different kinds of 5 axis CNC machines available in the market usually have the following five forms:
- The double-swivel head, where the two rotational coordinates directly manage the directions of the cutter axis.
- The drooping swivel head, where two coordinates stay over the cutter, but the linear axis is not perpendicular to the rotational axis.
- The double swivel table, where the two rotational coordinates directly manage the space rotation
- The droop table, where two of the axes stay on the table in a way that the axis is not perpendicular to the axis of rotation
- The one-swing one-rotate form, where there are two rotational coordinates in which there is one each for the work pieces and the cutter
Types of 5-Axis CNC Machines
There are three main types of 5 axis CNC machining, which have been discussed below.
1. Head: The rotary axis of this kind of CNC machining is located at the top. These are manufactured with the 5 axis apex, which remains on a specific platform and goes through fixed tables to hold the work piece on the spot. It helps the apex to move around particular pieces to make 5 axis CNC machines the right fit for producing large parts. These generally come with limited movements in its rotary axis and the tilt that comes with the design.
2. Table: IN this kind of machine setup, one rotary axis is located on the table and another is on the head. The revolving axes stays on the head and offers a limited range, whereas the rotary shaft stays on the table with a free range of movement. As the part stays on rotary axis, the arrangement is minimized to the amount of items that can be produced. The capacity to constantly revolve this part without thinking about hitting a particular limit makes this kind of setup more beneficial than the head.
3. Table: In this case, the machine has all its rotary axes situated inside the table and also a limited scope in its revolving axis. The rotary axis does not have limited range. This kind of machine arrangement comes with minimum work envelopes than other kinds. Others have definite motors to make them go fast.
Pros of 5 axis CNC machining
1. Significant reduction in processing time
5 axis CNC machining helps in saving more time than the other conventional types. Parts made in most of the CNC shops have to get machined on the five sides. 5 axis CNC machining helps in doing the job effectively and fast in production. The single setup is needed a little also, which saves both money and time. The end products reach the market faster this way.
2. Improved precision in machining
5 axis CNC milling offers greater accuracy because it doesn’t need too much setups. Added setups can only invite more errors. It also increases the durability of specific tools because of the widespread use of short cutting tools.
3. Quality of the surface finish
This kind of configurations help in creating surfaces having better finish. The parts are situated comparatively closer to cutting tools in 5 axis CNC machines. The final two axes will allow one to use the short cutting tools that don’t vibrate too much, and this will significantly impact the quality of the surface finish. Another great fact about 5 axis CNC machines is their ability to cut intricate shapes.
Hopefully, now you have a clear idea about the details and advantages of 5 axis CNC machining. It is time to put this knowledge to good use and start working on your next project.